1. "Laws" in Laws of Identity should be understood scientifically - hypothesis about the world resulting from observation which can be tested and therefore disprovable. Laws shouldn't be understood here from moral or legal perspective.
2. Digital Identity is defined as a set of claims by one digital subject about itself or another digital subject. A digital subject is a person or thing represented or existing in the digital realm which is being described or dealt with. Finally, a claim is an assertion of the truth of something, typically one which is disputed or in doubt.
3. Examples of claims:
- A claim could convey the identifier. ("jdoe" is the username for John Doe)
- A claim could assert that a subject knows a given key.
- A set of claims might convey personally identifying data.
- A claim could propose that a subject is part of a certain group.
- A claim could state that a subject has a capability.